East Mediterranean


Jordan’s low-growth economy and geopolitical balancing act seemingly leave the country on the perennial brink. The start-up of gas imports from Israel's Leviathan by 2019 will add pressure.

State of Play

Highly dependent on foreign aid and remittances, the kingdom's economy is set grow a mere 2% in 2018. Amman faces a popular backlash at each attempt to push through IMF-backed reforms. Plans to import natural gas from Israel’s Leviathan field, to curb a gaping energy deficit, face widespread public opprobrium.

2019 In Numbers
Peak Load 3.5 GW
GDP 41.9 $bn
Growth 2.3 %GDP
Debt 40.2 $bn


Oil & Gas

19 Feb, 2021


Israel 2020 Gas Output, Exports At Record Levels

Start-up of the 23tcf Leviathan field saw Israel’s gas output hit records for 2020. But Covid and Egypt’s gas surplus capped output well below capacity.

Israeli Sales By Market (bn cfd): Domestic And Jordan Sales Collapsed In Q2 But Rebounded In Q3 As Sales To Egypt Also Took Off
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Jordan’s Debt Continues To Climb As Low Growth Leads To Consecutive Deficits

1: Jordan's Power Generation Fuel Mix (%): Gas Options See Oil Products Burn (And Nepco’s Spending) Plummet

2: FSRU And The Resumption Of Egyptian Imports Give Jordan Ample Gas Import (Mn Cfd) Options Ahead Of 2020 Leviathan Startup

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