Former Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika passed away on 17 September at the age of 84, two years after he was forced to resign by the military amid nationwide protests (MEES, 5 April 2019). A former independence-fighter and foreign minister, Mr Bouteflika ruled Algeria for two decades and is widely credited with stitching the country back together following a bloody civil war in the 90s. But he is also accused of creating, or at least presiding over, a highly corrupt, nepotistic system fueled by oil money.

Two years on, the ‘Hirak’ protest movement has been almost entirely swept aside by a regime which has managed to reconstitute itself following the exit of the Bouteflika clan. A new president, new constitution and new parliament have been brought in, but the country’s shadowy politics and closed economy remains intact (MEES, 25 June). (CONTINUED - 135 WORDS)