Libya’s crude oil output has averaged 1.2mn b/d since the start of 2021, the highest sustained level since 2013 (see chart 1). But the country’s National Oil Corporation is conscious that a step-up in investment from key IOCs is needed if it is to advance plans to boost output to 1.6mn b/d by 2023 never mind NOC’s highly ambitious 2.1mn b/d 2025 target (MEES, 11 June).