Last year was a mixed one for Egypt’s upstream fortunes. Gas output leapt 16% to a record 6.94bn cfd as Eni’s 21.5tcf deepwater Mediterranean Zohr field (briefly) hit full 3.2bn cfd capacity for the first time and BP’s Raven field started up in April. But oil output slumped to 574,000 b/d, the lowest level since 1980, the culmination of years of underinvestment in Egypt’s mature oil provinces of the Western Desert and Gulf of Suez.