The JMMC which monitors compliance with the Opec+ commitments became a bone of contention in 2018. Iran was a particular critic, accusing “some members” of the JMMC of siding with the US against Tehran and deviating from their purpose (MEES, 9 November 2018).

Saudi Energy Minister Khalid al-Falih confirmed on 18 March that Iraq, Nigeria, the UAE and non-Opec’s Kazakhstan have now joined the committee. Kazakhstan was nominated in December by Oman, which now drops out. The other members – co-chairs Saudi Arabia and Russia, alongside Kuwait and Algeria, with Venezuela participating as the 2019 Opec President – have retained their positions on the body, boosting its membership from six to nine. (CONTINUED - 192 WORDS)